The present work analyses the sustainability of food security in cacao monocultures and agroforestry systems under organic and conventional management. Using a novel approach, we developed indicators to assess crucial dimensions of food security, including land and labour productivity, the nutritional quality of food, and their nexus with energy efficiency and consumption. Our ten-year data showed that monocultures, especially conventional ones, are more productive (in terms of land and labour) when only the main crop (cacao) is considered and energy consumption is not assessed. When all the crops produced and the demand for non-renewable energy are included, agroforestry systems are more productive (kg, kcal, proteins and fats and nutritional quality index) and more energy efficient than monocultures according to all the indicators analysed. Therefore, encouraging policies that take into consideration the positive externalities of agroforestry and organic management is crucial for the sustainability of food systems. All rights reserved, Elsevier.