Vanilla (Vanilla planifolia) native to Mexico, is a plant that belongs to the orchid family. It is formed by the cutting, orchids and their fruits (beans). Since its discovery by the Totonacas until today, it has been used to flavor many beverages and foods, due to its sensorial properties developed during a traditional curing process, which has given Mexican vanilla beans an important international demand for their exquisite flavor and for having the most complete aromatic profile among all the species marketed, enabling to hold a denomination of origin facilitating its commercialization and ensuring its quality. The green vanilla bean lacks aroma and flavor, so to develop these characteristics it must be subjected to a traditional curing process, which is carried out in an artisanal way and consists of 4 stages (killing, sweating, sun drying and conditioning), which allow the development of phenolic and aromatic compounds, fatty and organic acids that contribute to the development of its aromatic profile, which may be related to morphological, structural, chemical changes, endophytic microorganisms, which together interact giving their aromatic profile so appreciated. However, this has only been studied during the bean physiological maturity and at the end of the curing process. According to the above, this review consists of the integration of knowledge about the vanilla generalities, current regulations, composition, endophyte microorganisms and microstructural changes that develop in the vanilla bean during the traditional curing process; as well as their interrelation between each of them; in addition to a possible evaluation of the waste use generated after the extraction systems of the compounds responsible for the aroma. In order to provide information and scientific knowledge on the integral behavior of the vanilla bean during the curing process, related to the development of molecules responsible for the aromatic profile, as well as technological and commercial of importance, which together promote a better understanding of the structure-property-functionality relationship of green vanilla beans and during their curing process, allowing the use of technological processes that contribute to the development of value-added products and vanilla integral use All rights reserved, Elsevier.