Olecranon peach kernel oil was extracted by n-hexane. The main physicochemical properties (acid value, peroxide value, anisidine value) and lipid soluble concomitant (tocopherol, sterol, squalene) were analyzed. The fatty acid composition and volatile components of the oil were studied by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results showed that using n-hexane as the agent, the yield of olecranon peach kernel oil was 33.82%, the acid value was 0.46 mg KOH/g, the peroxide value was 1.66 mmol/kg and the anisidine value was 0.86, which were in line with the hygienic standard of crude vegetable oil in China. The main fat-soluble nutrients were tocopherol (174.28 μg/g), squalene (6.03 μg/g) and β-sitosterol (2.68 μg/g). The olecranon peach kernel oil was rich in unsaturated fatty acids (93.56%), mainly oleic acid (76.56%) and linoleic acid (16.89%). In addition, a total of 33 volatile components were identified in olecranon peach kernel oil, in which aldehydes were the main source of flavor substances, accounting for 71.93 % of the total volatile components, and benzaldehyde, furfural, nominal and isobutyraldehyde were the main flavor substances. The study could lay a theoretical foundation for comprehensive utilization of the by-products of olecranon peach and further research and efficient utilization of olecranon peach kernel oil.