Small and very small beef processors constantly face economic challenges due to the industry's high volume and low-profit nature. The use of beef-harvest by-products and low-value cuts for human food provides opportunities to generate additional premiums and increase profit margins. This review is designed to identify recent advances and food-safety challenges associated with the value-added utilization of by-products and low-value comminuted meat products. The review focuses on developments in the utilization of historically inedible and edible offal as food or food ingredients. In addition, the risks and benefits of the utilization of natural and plant-based ingredients to enhance the functional properties of ground-beef products are discussed in the article. All rights reserved, Elsevier.