Refined red palm-pressed mesocarp olein (PPMO) is recovered from palm-pressed mesocarp fiber, which is a by-product from palm oil mill. Its utilization in food industry is extremely limited even though it contains various phytonutrients. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate its toxicity effects by using the male Sprague-Dawley rat model. The rats were administered with a single dose of 2 g/kg PPMO in an acute toxicity study while administered with 2, 1, or 0.5 g/kg PPMO daily for 28 days in a sub-chronic toxicity study. The mortality, oral LD50 value, clinical observation, body and organ weight, hematological and biochemical analyses, pathological and histopathological examinations were assessed. The overall outcomes indicated that PPMO is non-toxic up to 2 g/kg and considered safe to be used in food application, especially as functional food ingredient and supplement attributed to its phytonutrients. Besides, this study provides an insight in alternative utilization of the wastes from palm oil mill.