Background. Extensive literature examines the role of the retail food environment (FE) as a driver of obesity, yet retail does not capture the variety of food sources in many low-and-middle-income countries, particularly in the Pacific region. This limits our understanding of how the FE contributes to the double burden of malnutrition. Aim. To characterise the FE in the Pacific, and the relative importance of these FEs in people's diets in the Solomon Islands. Methods. A conceptual typology of FEs is presented based on a literature review and stakeholder consultation. This typology is then tested through secondary analysis of food acquisition data from the Solomon Islands 2012/13 Household Income and Expenditure Survey. Results. We propose six primary FEs relevant in the Pacific; wild, cultivated, kin and community, informal retail, formal retail and food aid and services. The cultivated FE is by far the most important single FE accounting for 60% of the quantity of food acquired, followed by wild (15%), kin and community (9%), and formal and informal retail FEs (8% each). Important differences exist between urban and rural households, wealth groups and provinces, as well as proportion of food groups provided by different FEs. Conclusion. The wild and, kin and community FEs have been previously overlooked as a food source. This evidence highlights the critical need for tools and methods to characterise these unique FEs (in addition to cultivated and retail) in the Pacific region and beyond, and to understand their relationship to nutrition and health outcomes. Copyright © 2021 Dietitians Australia. All rights reserved.