Various technologies are used for the treatment of arsenic (As) contaminated water, but only a few seem to be suitable for small-scale applications; these are mostly used in rural communities where the access to potable water is the most vulnerable. In this review paper, the salient advantages and most notable challenges of membrane-based technologies for the removal of arsenate As(V) and arsenite As(III) are evaluated and systematically compared to alternative technologies such as e.g. adsorption. A comparison of different scientific papers, case studies and pilot trials is used to discuss the most important aspects when evaluating As mitigation technologies, including the ability to comply with the stringent WHO drinking water guideline limit value of 10 µg/L As and the safe disposal of produced As-laden waste. The use of renewable energies such as solar power in small-scale (<10 m3/day) membrane applications is evaluated. Finally, a conceptual approach for holistic As mitigation is proposed as an important approach to prevent exposure to As by providing a safe water supply. All rights reserved, Elsevier.