Unprecedented urbanization is dramatically altering habitual food consumption in urban China, and consequently affecting diet-linked greenhouse gas emissions (DGHGEs). Building on the representative resident survey data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey, this study analyzed urban food consumption profiles and related GHG emissions from a life cycle perspective. Moreover, a CATREG (Categorical Regression) model was conducted to identify influencing factors. Results show that urban residents in China generate an average of 2.92 kg CO2e/capita/day, with 1.06 kg of foods consumed. Meat consumption has a dominant role in urban DGHGEs and is the main driver of variation in the DGHGEs. Urbanization level and most demographic factors with regard to household and individual characteristics have significant impacts on urban DGHGEs. However, the resident's awareness of the Chinese Dietary Guideline dose not significantly contribute to promoting low-GHG urban diets. A novel result of this analysis is that local ecological conditions, including geographical climate and resource endowments, have evident effects on urban food consumption and the related GHG emissions, despite the fact that urban areas heavily rely on food resources imported from other regions. Our findings offer knowledge-based inspiration geared to sustainable urban food consumption for both China and other developing countries. All rights reserved, Elsevier.