Dichlorvos (DDVP) is an organophosphorus compound with insecticidal effects. Organophosphorus pesticides can easily enter humans or animals through various channels, causing cerebrum nerve cell damage. The purpose of this research was to investigate whether acute dichlorvos poisoning can cause cerebrum neurotoxic injury and change the expression of apoptosis-related genes in broilers, further clarify the neurotoxic mechanism after acute dichlorvos exposure, and provide a research basis for prevention, treatment and gene drug screening in the later stage. In this experiment, healthy yellow-feathered broilers were randomly assigned to the control group, the low-dose group (1.13 mg/kg) and the high-dose group (10.2 mg/kg) for modelling observation, and detection was conducted based on H&E (haematoxylin and eosin) staining, transmission electron microscopy analysis of tissue sections, immunofluorescence techniques and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The results showed that organophosphorus poisoning was accompanied by obvious neurological symptoms such as limb twitching and massive salivation. In addition, we observed that compared with the control group, the number of lysed nuclear neurons, deformed vascular sheaths, and glial cells and the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in the poisoned group of broilers increased significantly, and the increase was more obvious in the low-dose group. However, cell apoptosis and mitochondrial structure dissolution were most pronounced in the high-dose group. Moreover, the qRT-PCR results also revealed significant changes in the expression of apoptosis-related genes. The expression levels of ACC, LKB1 and GPAT increased significantly, while the expression of HMGR, PPARα, CPT1 and AMPKα1 decreased significantly. In summary, these results indicated that dichlorvos may cause the lysis of cerebrum nerve cell nuclei, completely destroy the structure of mitochondria, change the expression of related apoptotic genes, enhance cell apoptosis, and cause neurogenic damage to the cerebrum. These research results offer a theoretical foundation for the prevention and treatment of acute organophosphate toxicosis. All rights reserved, Elsevier.