The present invention relates to a composition containing osmotin protein as an active ingredient for the prevention, alleviation, or treatment of Parkinson's disease. The osmotin protein has the effects of: alleviating behavioral and motor deficiencies induced by MPTP/a-synuclein; protecting dopamine-active neurons; regulating the expression of neuroinflammation-related proteins; suppressing MPTP/a-synuclein-induced cell death; mitigating cellular damage from the overexpression of a-synuclein (A53T); activating AMPK, and subsequently reducing the accumulation of a-synuclein through autophagy; modulating the dendritic composite structure; increasing spine density in pyramidal neurons; alleviating cognitive deficits; and restoring the expression of synaptic markers. Hence, the composition can be beneficially used as a health functional food or medicine for the prevention, improvement, or treatment of Parkinson's disease.

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