Provided are compositions comprising compounds or precursors to compounds which may be used for a variety of therapeutic applications including, for example, treating and/or preventing a disease or disorder related to reduced or inadequate mitochondrial activity, including aging or stress, diabetes, obesity, and neurodegenerative diseases. The compounds relate generally to urolithins and precursors thereof, including but not limited to ellagitannins and urolithin A. In certain embodiments the compositions are presented in or as food products or nutritional supplements. These same compounds and compositions can also be used advantageously in generally healthy individuals to increase or maintain metabolic rate, decrease percent body fat, increase or maintain muscle mass, manage body weight, improve or maintain mental performance (including memory), improve or maintain muscle performance, improve or maintain mood, and manage stress.

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