A high-resolution dual-beam counter propagating optical-tweezers instrument was designed that can measure forces at <1 pN and one nanometer distance at a temporal resolution of 25 micro s with high accuracy and precision. Using the high-resolution optical-tweezers, time-dependent conformational switching and structural rearrangements in a single-molecule of the guanine aptamer were identified that follow a modified induced-fit model, where guanine remodels multiple barriers and triggers the receptor conformation rapidly to synchronize with the elongating transcriptional machinery for controlling gene regulation.

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