Nanoparticles (NPs) are particles of matter that are between 1 to 100nm in diameter. They are suggested to cause toxic effects in both humans and environment thorough different mechanisms. However, their toxicity profile may be different from the parent material. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) NPs are widely used in cosmetic, pharmaceutical and food industries. As a white pigment, the use of TiO2 is used in food coloring, industrial paints, clothing and UV filters has increased tremendously in recent years. Melatonin, on the other hand, is a well-known antioxidant and may prevent oxidative stress caused by a variety of different substances, including NPs. In the current study, we aimed to comparatively investigate the effects of normal-sized TiO2 (220nm) and nano-sized TiO2 (21nm) on cytopathology, cytotoxicity, oxidative damage (lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and glutathione), genotoxicity (8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine), apoptosis (caspase 3, 8 and 9) and epigenetic alterations (global DNA methylation,...

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