A method includes selecting a non-infant patient having an obesity-related metabolic disorder and being diagnosable with one or more of obesity, obesity-induced pre-diabetes, and obesity-induced type 2 diabetes. The method further includes selecting an effective amount of one or more human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) selected from: fucosylated HMOs 2'-fucosyllactose (2'-FL), 3-fucosyllactose (3-FL), lacto-N-fucopentaose I (LNFP-I), and difucosyllactose (DFL); non-fucosylated HMOs lacto-N-tetraose (LNT), lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnT), 3',6-disialyllacto-N-tetraose (DSLNT), 6'-sialyllactose (6'-SL), and 3'-sialyllactose (3'-SL); and mixtures thereof. The method further includes increasing the relative abundance of Bifidobacterium adolescentis in the non-infant patient by administering the selected effective amount of the selected one or more HMOs and improving in the non-infant patient at least one condition selected from increased insulin sensitivity, reduced insulin resistance, improved gut barrier function, and reduction of metabolic inflammation. In various examples, the method includes increasing levels of at least one glucagon-like peptide.

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