Disclosed are methods and probiotic compositions for the treatment of a metabolic disease or disorder such as, e.g., obesity, type 2 diabetes, or fatty liver. In some embodiments, heat-inactivated Parabacteroides goldsteinii is enterically administered to a subject, such as a human patient, to treat the metabolic disease or disorder or to promote the development of warm microbiota to treat the metabolic disease or disorder. In some aspects, spermine or spermidine may be administered to a subject or used in vitro to promote the growth of microbiota that can be used for the treatment of a metabolic disease or disorder.

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