A system (12) for estimating total dissolved solids (TDS) concentration in boiler water is described which comprises: a sensor (14) having a transmitter configured to transmit an RF or microwave signal into the boiler water and a receiver configured to receive a reflected signal from a reflection of the RF or microwave signal by the boiler water; and an analysis module (16) configured to determine a conductivity value for the boiler water based on the reflected signal and to determine a TDS concentration for the boiler water based on the conductivity. A corresponding method is also described.

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