In this study, we investigated the protective effects of cuttlefish ink nanoparticles (CINP) against dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced ulcerative colitis (UC) and tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP)-induced oxidative stress in human colon adenocarcinoma cells (Caco-2) and their underlying mechanisms. In vitro results showed that CINP reduced apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and mitochondrial membrane potential. It also inhibited the expression levels of the oxidation indicators lactate dehydrogenase and malondialdehyde and increased the expression levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in TBHP-induced Caco-2 cells. In vivo experiments showed that CINP ameliorated DSS-induced weight loss, colon shortening, and histopathological changes. In addition, CINP increased the enzymatic activities of SOD, CAT, and glutathione peroxidase and the levels of the anti-inflammatory factor interleukin-10. It also inhibited the expression of pro-inflammatory factors interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor, and interleukin-1β. In summary, CINP attenuated TBHP-induced Caco-2 oxidative stress and DSS-induced UC through its antioxidant effects. All...

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