The research investigates the effects of freeze-dried Spirulina maxima microcapsules in reducing testicular toxicity in rats and optimizing the in vitro release behavior of milk beverages using response surface methodology (RSM). Particle size, polydispersity index and zeta-potential were impacting microcapsules' stability and bioactivity. Thirty-six male Sprague-Dawley rats were utilized; eighteen of them received cadmium orally at a dose of 0.5 mg/mL/rat/d. The nutritional and biochemical parameters were evaluated. Non-encapsulated and Spirulina maxima microcapsules exhibited no significant adverse consequences in vitro experiment. Spirulina maxima microcapsules defended rats against both the inflammatory and apoptotic consequences triggered by cadmium. Incorporating Spirulina maxima microcapsules into the milk beverage at 3 % optimized in vitro release behavior of antioxidants and phenolics due to the increasing importance of these compounds' biological activity. Spirulina maxima microcapsules guide as a viable approach for providing nutritional enrichment in the food industry; moreover, protecting against cadmium-induced oxidative testicular damage in...

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