The work aimed to develop the multi-protein mixture of egg yolk as natural particles to stabilize high internal phase Pickering emulsions (HIPPEs) to improve the bioaccessibility of β-carotene in the elderly. The results showed that the depletion attraction drove the adsorption of egg yolk protein particles at the oil-water interface and the formation of osmotic droplet clusters due to the attachment of particle-coated droplets in the dispersed phase, leading to kinetic blocking and stable gelation of HIPPEs. Rheological measurements showed that HIPPEs had shear thinning, low shear stress, viscoelastic properties, and structural recovery properties, which facilitated easy consumption for the elderly. The stability of HIPPEs was verified by ionic and centrifugal stability tests, demonstrating their potential for application to complex gastric environments. HIPPEs have been applied to the International Dysphagia Dietary Standardization Initiative (IDDSI) test and simulated in vitro digestion in older adults, demonstrating their safe swallowability and high β-carotene...

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