The aim of this study was to investigate the dynamic profile of microorganisms and metabolites in Hainan Trinitario cocoa during a six-day spontaneous box fermentation process. Shotgun metagenomic and metabolomic approaches were employed for this investigation. The potential metabolic functions of microorganisms in cocoa fermentation were revealed through a joint analysis of microbes, functional genes, and metabolites. During the anaerobic fermentation phase, Hanseniaspora emerged as the most prevalent yeast genus, implicated in pectin decomposition and potentially involved in glycolysis and starch and sucrose metabolism. Tatumella, possessing potential for pyruvate kinase, and Fructobacillus with a preference for fructose, constituted the primary bacteria during the pre-turning fermentation stage. Upon the introduction of oxygen into the fermentation mass, acetic acid bacteria ascended to dominant within the microflora. The exponential proliferation of Acetobacter resulted in a decline in taxonomic richness and abundance. Moreover, the identification of novel species within the Komagataeibacter genus suggests...

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