Extruded plant proteins, also known as textured vegetable proteins (TVPs), serve as vital components in plant-based meat analogue, yet their structural and nutritional characteristics remain elusive. In this study, we examined the impact of high-moisture (HM) and low-moisture (LM) extrusion on the structures, digestion and absorption of three types of plant proteins. Extrusion transformed plant proteins from spherical to fibrous forms, and formed larger aggregate particles. It also led to the disruption of original disulfide bonds and hydrophobic interactions within protein molecules, and the formation of new cross-links. Intriguingly, compared to native plant proteins, TVPs' α-helix/β-sheet values decreased from 0.68 to 0.69 to 0.56-0.65. Extrusion increased the proportion of peptides shorter than 1 kD in digesta of TVPs by 1.44-23.63%. In comparison to unextruded plant proteins, TVPs exhibited lower content of free amino acids in cell transport products. Our findings demonstrated that extrusion can modify protein secondary structure by diminishing...

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