The proofing process is crucial for determining the final characteristics of bakery products. The aim of this work was, therefore, to develop an agent-based model that can predict the effect of proofing time on the moisture content, temperature and changes in physicochemical characteristics of different parts of bread during baking. Results of this study showed that the moisture content of the crumb for fermented dough increased to a peak of 62% in the middle of baking, whereas it decreased to less than 10% in bread crust. However, the moisture content of the crumb was nearly unchanged in unfermented samples and decreased to 32% at the end of baking. Evaporation zones initially formed in the thinner parts of the crust when bread, a porous material, was heated from the surface; this led to the development of spots with higher temperatures during the subsequent baking steps. During baking, the values for density,...

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