Fujian province, an important tea-producing area in China, has abundant tea cultivars. To investigate the genetic relationships of tea plant cultivars in Fujian province and the characteristics of the tea plant varieties, a total of 70 tea cultivars from Fujian and other 12 provinces in China were subjected to restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq). A total of 60,258,975 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sites were obtained. These 70 tea plant cultivars were divided into three groups based on analyzing the phylogenetic tree, principal component, and population structure. Selection pressure analysis indicated that nucleotide diversity was high in Southern China and genetically distinct from cultivars of Fujian tea plant cultivars, according to selection pressure analysis. The selected genes have significant enrichment in pathways associated with metabolism, photosynthesis, and respiration. There were ten characteristic volatiles screened by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) coupled with multivariate statistical methods, among which the differences in the contents...

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