To investigate the mechanism of melatonin (MT)-mediated glutathione (GSH) in promoting glucoraphanin (GRA) and sulforaphane (SF) synthesis, the gene expression pattern and protein content of hairy broccoli roots under MT treatment were analyzed by a combination of RNA-seq and tandem mass spectrometry tagging (TMT) techniques in this study. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis revealed that both proteins and mRNAs with the same expression trend were enriched in the "Glutathione metabolism (ko00480)" and "Proteasome (ko03050)" pathways, and most of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and differentially abundant proteins (DAPs) regulating the two pathways were downregulated. The results showed that endogenous GSH concentration and GR activity were increased in hairy roots after MT treatment. Exogenous GSH could promote the biosynthesis of GRA and SF, and both exogenous MT and GSH could upregulate the expression of the GSTF11 gene related to the sulfur transport gene, thus promoting the biosynthesis of...

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