Garlic (Allium sativum ) is a functional food containing multiple bioactive compounds that find widespread applications in culinary and medicinal practices. It consists of multiple chemical components, including allicin and alliin. This article offers a comprehensive review of the protective effects of garlic extracts and their active constituents on the vascular system. In vitro and in vivo experiments have shown that garlic extracts and their active ingredients possess various bioactive properties. These substances demonstrate beneficial effects on blood vessels by demonstrating anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities, inhibiting lipid accumulation and migration, preventing lipid peroxidation, promoting angiogenesis, reducing platelet aggregation, enhancing endothelial function, and inhibiting endothelial cell apoptosis. In clinical studies, garlic and its extracts have demonstrated their efficacy in managing vascular system diseases, including atherosclerosis, diabetes, and high cholesterol levels. In summary, these studies highlight the potential therapeutic roles and underlying mechanisms of garlic and its constituents in managing conditions...

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