Cyanobacterial blooms and the toxins they produce pose a growing threat worldwide. Mitigation of such events has primarily focused on phosphorus management and has largely neglected the role of nitrogen. Previous bloom research and proposed management strategies have primarily focused on temperate, dimictic lakes, and less on warm-monomictic systems like those at subtropical latitudes. The in-lake conditions, concentration of total microcystins, and microbial functioning of twenty warm-monomictic lakes in the southcentral United States were explored in the spring and summer of 2021. Our data revealed widespread microcystins in lakes across this region, some of which exceeded regulatory limits. Microcystins were higher in the spring compared to the summer, indicating that warm-monomictic lakes, even across a large range of precipitation, do not follow the trends of temperate dimictic lakes. Microcystins were found in surface waters and bottom waters well below the photic zone, reflecting the persistence of these toxins in the...

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