Purpose Studies report mixed findings regarding the association of breastfeeding with childhood brain tumors (CBT), the leading causes of cancer-related mortality in young people. Our objective was to determine whether breastfeeding is associated with CBT incidence. Methods We pooled data on N=2610 cases with CBT (including 697 cases with astrocytoma, 447 cases with medulloblastoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor [PNET], 167 cases with ependymoma) and N=8128 age- and sex-matched controls in the Childhood Cancer and Leukemia International Consortium. We computed unconditional logistic regression models to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of CBT, astrocytoma, medulloblastoma/PNET, and ependymoma according to breastfeeding status, adjusting for study, sex, mode of delivery, birthweight, age at diagnosis/interview, maternal age at delivery, maternal educational attainment, and maternal race/ethnicity. We evaluated any breastfeeding versus none and breastfeeding≥6 months versus none. We subsequently performed random effects meta-analysis to confirm our findings, identify potential sources of...

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