Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome, remains without approved pharmacological treatment. Food-derived bioactive peptides can aid in the management of metabolic conditions including hypertension, obesity and insulin resistance. IRW (isoleucine-arginine-tryptophan) is a tripeptide produced from egg white with angiotensin converting enzyme-inhibitory properties. IRW supplementation elicits antihypertensive effects, improves skeletal muscle insulin signaling and glucose tolerance while reducing body weight gain. In this study, we hypothesized that IRW supplementation would prevent high-fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD by modulating hepatic lipid metabolism and increasing mitochondrial content. We found that IRW prevents diet-induced NAFLD, while rosiglitazone (ROSI) treatment worsens it. IRW decreases hepatic triglyceride content and lipid droplet size compared to HFD and ROSI. IRW increases the hepatic mitochondrial complexes and citrate synthase activity, phosphorylation of 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein abundance compared to HFD. Compared with ROSI, IRW increases phosphorylated acetyl CoA carboxylase and...

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