Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and arachidonic acid (ARA), are beneficial for reducing blood cholesterol and enhancing memory. Traditional PUFA production relies on extraction from plants and animals, which is unsustainable. Thus, using microorganisms as lipid-producing factories holds promise as an alternative way for PUFA production. Several oleaginous microorganisms have been successfully industrialized to date. These can be divided into universal and specialized hosts according to the products range of biosynthesis. The Yarrowia lipolytica is universal oleaginous host that has been engineered to produce a variety of fatty acids, such as γ-linolenic acid (GLA), EPA, ARA and so on. By contrast, the specialized host are used to produce only certain fatty acids, such as ARA in Mortierella alpina, EPA in Nannochloropsis, and DHA in Thraustochytrids. The metabolic engineering and fermentation strategies for improving PUFA production in universal and specialized hosts are...

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