Protein malnourishment (PM) is common among the elderly, but how aging and PM impact hematopoiesis is not fully understood. This study aimed to assess how aging and PM affect the hematopoietic regulatory function of bone marrow (BM) mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Young and aged male C57BL/6J mice were fed with normoproteic or hypoproteic diets and had their nutritional, biochemical, and hematological parameters evaluated. BM MSCs were characterized and had their secretome, gene expression, autophagy, reactive oxygen species production (ROS), and DNA double-stranded breaks evaluated. The modulation of hematopoiesis by MSCs was assayed using in vitro and in vivo models. Lastly, BM invasiveness and mice survival were evaluated after being challenged with leukemic cells of the C1498 cell line. Aging and PM alter biochemical parameters, changing the peripheral blood and BM immunophenotype. MSC autophagy was affected by aging and the frequencies for ROS and DNA double-stranded breaks. Regarding the MSCs' secretome,...

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