Campylobacteriosis, primarily caused by Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli, is the main bacterial zoonosis worldwide. While poultry is recognized as the main reservoir, bovines are considered another important reservoir for Campylobacter spp. found in human infections. In contrast to chicken, retail beef is seldom contaminated by Campylobacter species. However, beef liver is recognized to be frequently contaminated and has been linked to human infections via epidemiological investigations. Our aims were to evaluate the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. inside and on the surface of beef liver pieces at retail in Finland and to analyse the population in more detail using whole genome sequencing (WGS) to assess the public health relevance. A total of 90 retail beef livers were studied using both enrichment of the external peptone-saline rinse of the liver piece and direct culture from the inside after surface sterilization. Furthermore, 46 of the livers were also studied using direct...

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