Memory impairment during aging and amnesia is attributed to compromised mitochondrial dynamics and mitophagy and other mitochondrial quality control mechanisms. Mitochondrial dynamics involves the continuous process of fission and fusion of mitochondria within a cell and is a fundamental mechanism for regulating mitochondrial quality and function. An extensive range of potential nutritional supplements has been shown to improve mitochondrial health, synaptic plasticity, and cognitive functions. Previous findings revealed that supplementation of vitamin B12-folic acid reduces locomotor deficits and mitochondrial abnormalities but enhances mitochondrial and neuronal health. The present study aims to explore the impact of combined vitamin B12-folic acid supplementation on mitochondrial dynamics, neuronal health, and memory decline in old age and scopolamine-induced amnesia, which remains elusive. The results demonstrated that supplementation led to a noteworthy increase in recognition and spatial memory and expression of memory-related protein BDNF in old and amnesic mice. Moreover, the decrease...

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