Sexual dimorphism is phenotypic differences between males and females in the same species. In general, males in most animals are larger than females at the same age, however, in quail, females have a larger body size with greater muscle mass than males. To understand what characteristics in muscle growth play roles in reversed sexual dimorphism in quail, the weights and the characteristics of the pectoralis major and gastrocnemius muscles (PM and GM, respectively) of male and female quail were compared in the current study. The data showed that 15-wk-old female quail have significantly heavier bodies, and PM and GM weights compared to male quail (1.27-folds, 1.29-folds, and 1.16-folds, respectively). To compare muscle characteristics such as hypertrophy (increased size) and hyperplasia (increased cell number), the PM and GM were stained using hematoxylin and eosin, and then histological characteristics such as total cross-sectional area (CSA), number and size of myofibers, and muscle...

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