Hepatic thioredoxin domain-containing 5 (TXNDC5) is a member of the protein disulfide isomerase family found associated with anti-steatotic properties of squalene and located in the endoplasmic reticulum and in lipid droplets. Considering that the latter are involved in hepatic squalene accumulation, the present research was aimed to investigate the role of TXNDC5 on hepatic squalene management in mice and in the AML12 hepatic cell line. Wild-type and TXNDC5-deficient (KO) mice were fed Western diets with or without 1% squalene supplementation for 6 weeks. In males, but not in females, absence of TXNDC5 blocked hepatic, but not duodenal, squalene accumulation. Hepatic lipid droplets were isolated and characterized using label-free LC-MS/MS analysis. TXNDC5 accumulated in this subcellular compartment of mice receiving squalene and was absent in TXNDC5-KO male mice. The latter mice were unable to store squalene in lipid droplets. CALR and APMAP were some of the proteins that responded to the...

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