Nanoplastics are inevitably ingested into human gastric environment, wherein their aggregation kinetics and interactions with gastric constituents remain unclear. This study investigated the early-stage (20 min) and long-term (1-6 h) aggregation kinetics of four commonly-found polystyrene nanoplastics (PSNPs) including NP100 (100-nm), A-NP100 (100-nm, amino-modified), C-NP100 (100-nm, carboxyl-modified), and NP500 (500-nm) under gastric conditions. Five simulated human gastric fluids (SGFs) including SGF1-3 (0-3.2 g/L pepsin and 34.2 mM NaCl), SGF4 (400 mM glycine), and SGF5 (nine constituents), three pH (2, fasted state; 3.5, late-fed state; and 5, early-fed state), and 1-100mg/L PSNPs were examined. Aggregation rates ranked NP100 > A-NP100 ≈ C-NP100 > NP500, SGF5 > SGF4 > SGF3 > SGF2 > SGF1, and pH 2 > 3.5 > 5. Increasing PSNP concentration enhanced aggregation rate up to 13.82 nm/s. Aggregation behavior generally followed the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory. Pepsin, glycine, and proteose-peptone strongly influenced PSNP stability via electrostatic interaction and steric...

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