Campylobacter spp. are the leading cause of bacterial foodborne infections in both developed and developing countries. The food commodities primarily attributed to campylobacteriosis include raw milk, poultry, seafood, and fresh produce. Furthermore, insects, animal/bird fecal material, and agricultural water have been shown to be the sources of Campylobacter contamination in these commodities. Both established and emerging species of Campylobacter have been recovered from food and environmental sources. Therefore, optimal detection and isolation of Campylobacter spp., including the emerging species, is critical for improved surveillance, prevention, and traceback of Campylobacter outbreaks. This review focuses on the existing variability in Campylobacter enrichment and isolation procedures used by researchers and regulatory agencies worldwide, for various matrices. Additionally, the challenges associated with developing and validating new culture, molecular, and immunological methods for rapid and sensitive Campylobacter detection are discussed. All rights reserved, Elsevier.

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