Obesity is characterized by an increase in food intake and a decrease in energy expenditure, which causes the accumulation of fat in the body, resulting in various disorders such as type 2 diabetes and cancer. Adipocytes secrete the hormone leptin, and leptin signaling plays an essential role in regulating energy balance. Leptin reduces food intake and increases energy expenditure by binding to its receptors in the hypothalamus and regulating appetite-regulating neurons. Accumulation of excess fat along with increased blood levels of leptin impairs the passage of leptin across the blood-brain barrier and induces leptin resistance. Estrogen also plays an important role in regulating energy balance due to the expression of its receptors in the hypothalamus, and its deficiency is associated with increased food intake and body weight, and estrogen therapy is able to partially mimic the effects of leptin. In this review, we get familiar with the concept of leptin...
A review: effects of estrogen and estrogen receptor modulators on leptin resistance: mechanisms and pathway.
Mohammad Khaksari, Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran. E-mail email@example.com
Zeinab Farhadi, Hossein Azizian, Ramona Haji-Seyed-Javadi, Mohammad Khaksari; A review: effects of estrogen and estrogen receptor modulators on leptin resistance: mechanisms and pathway.. IFIS Food and Health Sciences Database 2023; doi:
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