The present disclosure relates to a composition for treating or diagnosing osteoarthritis targeting activin A receptor type 2B (ACVR2B). More specifically, the present disclosure provides ACVR2B as a biomarker for diagnosing osteoarthritis because it was found that expression and activity of ACVR2B were increased at an early stage of osteoarthritis, expression of Mmp3, Mmp13, and Cox2 that induce destruction of cartilage was increased thereby, and expression of the genes was suppressed by inhibition of ACVR2B expression. In addition, since it was found that osteoarthritis was alleviated by suppressing the expression of ACVR2B, the present disclosure provides an ACVR2B expression or activity inhibitor as a therapeutic agent for osteoarthritis.

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