Introduction. Bromelain is a complex mixture of thiol proteases and other non-proteolytic constituents, commercially extracted primarily from the pineapple stem. Evidence from several in vitro and in vivo studies highlights its excellent bioavailability, lack of side effects, and broad spectrum of medical efficacies, of which the antiphlogistic properties are among the most valuable ones. Bromelain has indeed been employed for the efficient treatment of many inflammatory disorders, ranging from osteoarthritis and inflammatory bowel diseases to cancer-related inflammation. Methods. The aim of the current study was to assess the anti-inflammatory effects of bromelain after gastrointestinal digestion simulated in vitro using stomach, intestinal, and chondrocyte human cellular models (AGS, Caco-2, and SW1353, respectively). Results. We successfully demonstrated the capability of bromelain to reduce an inflammatory stimulus by reproducing its exposure to the gastro-enteric environment in vitro and assaying its effect in human cell lines derived from stomach, intestinal, and chondrocytes. Conclusion. Consistently...

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