The intestinal barrier plays a critical role in the health of the body because it not only protects against pathogens but also allows beneficial small-molecule components to enter the body. Dietary components also directly interact with the gastrointestinal tract and therefore influence the integrity of the gastrointestinal tract. The primary nutrients in the diet include macromolecular substances such as protein, fat, and carbohydrates, as well as small molecular substances such as minerals and vitamins. In addition, fruits and vegetables are also rich in polyphenols. Most of these substances are digested and come into direct contact with the intestinal tract in the form of small molecules, which substantially affect intestinal barrier function. This paper reviewed the effects of these common food components on intestinal barrier function and the basic structure of the intestinal barrier. It introduced the possible molecular biological mechanism affecting intestinal barrier function. All rights reserved, Elsevier.

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