Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), an increasingly serious health issue around the world, is characterized as a lipid metabolic disorder without any satisfactory treatment. Nobiletin (NOB), a citrus flavonoid, is considered a promising candidate for NAFLD prevention although there is limited research towards its exact mechanism. In this study, the preventative effect of NOB on NAFLD was investigated using high fat diet-fed ApoE-/- mice and free fatty acid-treated HepG2 cells. The results of hematoxylin and eosin staining of liver sections revealed that L-NOB (50mg kg-1 d-1 NOB), M-NOB (100mg kg-1 d-1 NOB) and H-NOB (200mg kg-1 d-1 NOB) could significantly ameliorate NAFLD. Further exploration illustrated that NOB alleviated hepatic steatosis mainly via TFEB-mediated lysosomal biogenesis and lipophagy. Besides, NOB could mitigate NLRP3 inflammasome assembly and modulate M1/M2macrophage polarization in vivo and in vitro. The mechanisms above allowed NOB to attenuate NAFLD, but...

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