Oat β-glucan (OBG) and l-arabinose (LA) have exhibited positive effects on diabetes and its complications. However, it is unclear whether OBG and LA have a synergistic effect. We investigated the effect of variable compositions (OBG: LA = 1:1, 1:2, 1:4, 1:6, 1:8, 1:10, 2:1, 4:1, 6:1, 8:1, 10:1) on glucose uptake in IR-HepG2 cells induced by dexamethasone (DEX) to find out the optimal composition showing synergistic effects. Furthermore, this study evaluated the anti-diabetic activity of the optimal composition in db/db mice. In vitro, the OBG: LA = 1:1group showed the strongest synergistic effects among the varied compositions, outperforming OBG and LA alone. In vivo, there were more beneficial effects in the OBG: LA = 1:1group compared with the OBG and LA single-dosing groups. OBG: LA = 1:1 supplementation markedly decreased the levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG) and insulin (INS) in serum, improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity,...

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