Probiotics have shown good efficacy in the prevention of ulcerative colitis (UC), but the specific mechanism remains unclear. Therefore, shotgun metagenomic and transcriptome analyses were performed to explore the preventive effect of a potential probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum HNU082 (Lp082) on UC and its specific mechanism. The results showed that Lp082 intervention ameliorated dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced UC in mice, which was manifested in the increase in body weight, water intake, food intake, and colon length and the decrease in the DAI index, immune organ index, inflammatory factors and histopathological scores after Lp082 intake. The mechanism is deeply studied and it is discovered that Lp082 improves the intestinal mucosal barrier by co-optimizing biological barriers, chemical barriers, mechanical barriers, and immune barriers. Specifically, Lp082 improved the biological barrier by increasing the diversity, optimizing the species composition and the structure of the gut microbiota, increasing bacteria producing short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), and...

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