Ligstroside aglycon (LA) is one of the main polyphenols in extra virgin olive oil (EVOO); nevertheless, it is scarcely investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects of LA on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine peritoneal macrophages, as well as the potential signaling pathways involved. Isolated macrophages were treated with LA (50, 25, and 12.5 μM) in the presence or absence of LPS (5 μg ml-1) for 18 h. Cell viability was determined using the sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. Nitric oxide (NO) and pro-inflammatory cytokine production was analyzed by the Griess method and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. Protein expression of pro-inflammatory markers and signaling pathways were evaluated by western blot analysis. LA showed significant antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects through decreasing oxidative stress markers such as NO production, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and NADPH oxidase-1 (NOX-1) protein expression. Besides, LA was able to...

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