In the present study, TiO2 nanoparticles at 0.20, 0.40 and 0.60% by weight fraction were used for developing nanoparticle enhanced phase change materials (NePCM) for rapid chilling of milk. NePCM capsuled inside the jackets of a cylindrical milk chilling module was taken as a test-rig for investigation. Transient energy storage and its discharge during passive milk chilling were numerically simulated using enthalpy-porosity and volume of fluid model of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique. The simulated results for the transient temperature fields and the solid-liquid fronts, validated with experiments, clearly visualized the rapidity of heat transfer using nanoparticles in different zones. Use of nanoparticles reduced the charging time, supercooling degree, phase-transition time and the energy discharging time during milk chilling by 25.49, 47.05, 30.18 and 42.90%, respectively. The fresh raw milk was passively chilled from 37 to below 10°C within 1 h and the chilled milk was maintained below this...

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