This study aimed to conduct a meta-analysis based on a random-effects model to combine different published pedigree-based and genomic heritability estimates for production traits in dairy cows. Also, the missing heritability estimates for the studied traits were determined. In total, 148 heritability estimates from 62 journal articles were used to conduct this meta-analysis. Heterogeneity among studies was evaluated using the I2 index and Chi-square (Q) test. The estimated pedigree-based and genomic heritabilities were 0.253 and 0.144 for milk yield (MY), 0.290 and 0.191 for milk fat percentage (FP), and 0.378 and 0.363 for milk protein percentage (PP), respectively. The gap between genomic and pedigree-based heritability estimates was high for MY (43%) and medium for FP (34%). Also, the difference between genomic and pedigree-based heritabilities was low for PP (11%). Meta-analysis of pedigree-based heritabilities for all traits indicated significant and high heterogeneity. Also, significant and moderate heterogeneity was observed for...

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