Objectives. We performed a systematic review to study the effect of enteral and parenteral energy intakes on neurodevelopment (NDV) and cerebral growth in preterm infants, evaluated by NDV scales, magnetic resonance imaging, and head circumference (HC). Methods. The MEDLINE, Scopus, and ISI Web of Knowledge databases were searched, using the following medical subject headings and terms: "Premature infants," "nutrition," "brain," "nervous system/growth" and "development." A manual search of the reference lists of all eligible articles was conducted. Studies in which the intervention applied was different energy intakes in parenteral nutrition and/or enteral nutrition (EN) during the first weeks of life and NDV was investigated were included. Data regarding nutrition and NDV were collected and analyzed. Results. Thirty-five studies were included, of which 12 were randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and 23 were cohort studies. Eight RCTs and 15 cohort studies investigated NDV using NDV scales. Of these studies, two RTCs and...

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