The objective of this study was to study the effects of heating, addition of calcium-chelating agents, sonication, and freezing on the creaming of bovine milk. Both accelerated centrifugal and gravitational creaming methods were used to examine the creaming profile of bovine milk at 20 °C; gravitational creaming was also examined at 5 °C. The creaming rate of milk slightly decreased following heating at 70, 75, 80, or 85 °C for 10 min, but the change was not significant (p > 0.05). Adding trisodium citrate enhanced creaming rate. The flocculation of fat globules occurred in the cream region after 24-h gravitational creaming, especially in sonicated milk and milk heated at 80 or 85 °C. Measuring creaming using either accelerated or gravitational creaming techniques gave similar broad information on creaming rate; however, mechanistic insights provided differed. All rights reserved, Elsevier.

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