This production method for a sugar solution comprises steps (1)-(4), and enables production of a sugar solution in which fermentation-inhibiting substances such as organic acids and aromatic compounds are reduced. Step (1): a step for pulverizing cellulose-containing biomass such that the proportion of particles that do not pass through a sieve having a mesh opening size of 1 mm is at most 50% in terms of dry weight. Step (2): a step for obtaining pretreated biomass by bringing the pulverized biomass obtained in step (1) into contact with an alkaline aqueous medium. Step (3): a step for adding water to the pretreated biomass obtained in step (2) for solid-liquid separation, to obtain cellulose-containing solid. Step (4): a step for hydrolyzing the cellulose solid obtained in step (3) to obtain a sugar solution.