With its unique cellular plasticity, the small intestinal mucosa exhibits efficient adaptability upon feeding. However, little is known about the effect of high-fat diet (HFD) feeding on this adaption and its underlying mechanism. Herein, we demonstrated that the cell proliferation ability, mitochondrial morphology, and global transcriptomic profile of the small intestine exhibited a prominent discrepancy between the fasted and refed state in mice, which were markedly attenuated by long-term HFD feeding. The retinol (Vitamin A, VA) metabolism pathway was dramatically affected by HFD feeding in the small intestine. Both VA and its active metabolite retinoic acid (RA), with the administration of lipid micelles, promoted the expression of genes involved in lipid absorption and suppressed the expression of genes involved in the cell proliferation of intestinal organoids. Via chip-qPCR and RT-qPCR, genes involved in lipid metabolism and cell proliferation were target genes of RARα/RXRα in small intestinal organoids treated with RA...

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